Before commencing with the guidance on the subject of divorce in the Quran in Surah alBaqarah, we are told:
[Al-Quran, 2:225-233, Translator:Muhammad Sarwar]
2:225 God will not take into account your inattentive oath. However, He will question you about what your hearts have gained. God is All-forgiving and Lenient.
2:226 Those who swear by God not to ever have any carnal relations with their wives (will not be punished), if they decide to resume marital relations again within four months. God is All-forgiving and All-merciful.
2:227 If they choose divorce, God is All-hearing and All-knowing.
2:228 The divorced women must wait up to three menstrual cycles before another marriage. If they believe in God and the Day of Judgment, it is not lawful for them to hide what God has created in their wombs. Within their waiting period their husbands have the right to resume marital relations, if they want reconciliation. Women have benefits as well as responsibilities. Men have a status above women. God is Majestic and Wise.
2:229 A marital relation can only be resumed after the first and second divorce, otherwise it must be continued with fairness or terminated with kindness. It is not lawful for you to take back from women what you have given them unless you are afraid of not being able to observe God's law. In this case, it would be no sin for her to pay a ransom to set herself free from the bond of marriage. These are the laws of God. Do not transgress against them; those who do so are unjust.
2:230 After a divorce for the third time, it is not lawful for the husband to resume marital relations with her or remarry her until she has been married and divorced by another husband. In that case, there is no sin for the former husband to marry her if they (both) think that they can abide by the law. These are the laws of God. He explains them for the people of knowledge.
2:231 When you divorce your wives and their waiting period has almost ended, you may resume marital relations with honor or leave them with kindness. Do not force them to live with you in suffering to satisfy your hostility. Whoever commits such transgressions, he has only harmed himself. Do not make jest of God's words. Remember the favors that God has done to you and the Book and wisdom He has revealed for your guidance. Have fear of God and know that God has knowledge of all things.
2:232 When the waiting period of the divorced women has ended, you (her relatives) must not prevent them from marrying their (previous) husbands again if they might reach an honorable agreement. This is an advice for those of you who believe in God and the Day of Judgment. It is the most beneficial and pure way of treating each other. God knows but you do not know.
2:233 Mothers will breast feed their babies for two years if the fathers want them to complete this term. The father has to pay them reasonable expenses. No soul is responsible for what is beyond its ability. None of the parents should suffer any loss from the other because of the baby. The heirs are responsible to look after the children of a deceased. It is no sin for the parents to have a mutual agreement about weaning the baby. There is no sin in hiring a woman to breast feed your children for a reasonable payment. Have fear of God and know that God is well aware of what you do.
2:234 The wives of those of you who die have to wait for a period of four months and ten days. After this appointed time, it is no sin for the relatives of the deceased to let the widows do what is reasonable. God knows well what you do.
2:235 It is not a sin if you make an indirect marriage proposal or have such an intention in your hearts. God knows that you will cherish their memories in your hearts. Do not have secret dates unless you behave lawfully. Do not decide for a marriage before the appointed time is over. Know that God knows what is in your hearts. Have fear of Him and know that He is All-forgiving and All-merciful.
2:236 Also, it is not a sin if you divorce your wives before the consummation of the marriage or the fixing of the dowry. But the dowry will be due from a husband whether he is rich or poor. It is payable in a reasonable amount according to the husband's financial ability. This is an obligation for the righteous ones.
2:237 If you divorce your wives before the consummation of the marriage and the amount of dowry has been fixed, pay your wives half of the amount of their dowry unless she or her guardians drop their demand for payment. To drop such a demand is closer to piety. Be generous to each other. God is Well-Aware of what you do.
2:238 Pay due attention to your prayers, especially the middle prayer and stand up while praying, in obedience to God.
2:239 In an emergency you may say your prayers while walking or riding; but when you are safe, remember God, as He has taught you what you did not know before.
2:240 Those who are about to die and leave widows behind should bequeath for their wives the expenses of one year's maintenance. The widows must not be expelled from the house for up to one year. It is no sin for the relatives of the deceased to permit the widows to leave the house before the appointed time and do what is reasonable. God is Majestic and Wise.
2:241 The divorced women have the right to receive reasonable provisions. It is an obligation for the pious.
2:242 Thus does God explain His revelations to you so that perhaps you will have understanding.
4:129 You will never be able to maintain justice among your wives and love them all equally, no matter how hard you try. Do not give total preference to one of them, leaving the other as if in suspense. If you do bring about reconciliation and maintain piety, God is All-forgiving and All-merciful.
4:130 If the marriage is terminated, God will make each one of them financially independent. God is Munificent and Wise.
4:131 To God belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth. We have told you and the People of the Book to have fear of God. If you all refuse to believe in Him, know that to God belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth. God is Self-sufficient and Praiseworthy.
33:49 Believers, if you marry believing women and then divorce them before the consummation of the marriage, they do not have to observe the waiting period. Give them their provisions and set them free in an honorable manner.
65:10 Allah hath prepared for them stern punishment; so keep your duty to Allah, O men of understanding! O ye who believe! Now Allah hath sent down unto you a reminder,
65:12 Allah it is who hath created seven heavens, and of the earth the like thereof. The commandment cometh down among them slowly, that ye may know that Allah is Able to do all things, and that Allah surroundeth all things in knowledge.